Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….3
I Metaphor and discourse: the presence of the role of metaphor in scientific discourse
1.1Discourse approach to metaphor:  Metaphor identification and classification….6
1.2Syntactical, lexical and compositional peculiarities of scientific texts………….13 1.3The place of metaphor in scientific discourse: types of metaphor used in scientific texts ……………………………………………………………………………….……25
1.4The functions of metaphor and  its significance in scientific texts …….………..30
II Textual analysis results of metaphor usage in scientific discourse
2.1Metaphor clusters in scientific discourse ……………….…………………………37
2.2The usage of metaphors in different types of genre ……………………………..44
2.3Metaphor occurrence in scientific texts ………………………………………......51
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..…………59
Bibliography………………………………………………………….………….……..61
Appendix……………………………………………………………………………….63





Introduction
According to the acknowledgement of the linguists, nowadays in linguistics there are considerable changes connected with the problem of relationships between language and thought. For the last 30 years there was a gradual rise of interest to the metaphor – to the notion that exists more than 2000 years. This can be explained, first and foremost, by the common interest to the examination of the texts (of functional styles, of the peculiarities of the styles), by the tendency to give the linguistic substantiation and interpretation to the different stylistic devices, which impart expressiveness to the text. For instance, in the modern linguistic literature on the functional style of scientific prose there is no one opinion concerning such notion as figurative language and its functions in the scientific texts.
It’s well known that the science tends to investigate the object, to show its nature beyond person, his feelings and emotions. Here we can mention that the language means used in scientific discourse tend to be objective, precise, and unemotional, devoid of any individuality; there is а striving for the most generalized form of expression. As a result the use of any expressive means and stylistic devices in scientific discourse can lead to the distortion of the meaning and of the structure of scientific texts. However, although the rigour typical of science requires the use of a specific discourse, a certain amount of ambiguity and indefiniteness are also present. They thus make use of figurative language, which manages to overcome the strict limits of scientific rigour and objectivity, and re-presents ideas and theories in a different guise. This duality – or rather this metaphorical nature – of the language of scientific communication is the focus of the present research.
The usage of metaphors in scientific discourse is not a mere linguistic device used for the figurative embellishment, but, as it is related to the semantic shifts, it leads to the reconstruction of the whole structuring conceptual system of scientific discourse.
Thus, the place of metaphor in the discourse of science has always been problematic for the lack of studies in this sphere. This defines the topicality of the chosen theme of research “The role of metaphors in scientific discourse”.
The object of the senior thesis is identification of the role of metaphors in scientific discourse.
The objectives of the senior thesis:
 to study critically the scientific literature concerning the given theme;
 to determine the role of metaphor in different types of genre;
 to examine the syntactical, lexical and compositional peculiarities of scientific texts;
 to investigate the types of metaphor used in scientific texts;
 to define the functions and significance of metaphors in scientific discourse;
 to make a classification of the cases of metaphor use in scientific texts.
The object of the senior thesis is different types of scientific texts.
The subject of the senior thesis is integrated study of metaphor role in scientific discourse.
Hypothesis of the senior thesis consists in the fact that if the metaphorical nature of the scientific communication is defined, then the degree of metaphors impact  on the whole structure of the text will be fixed.
Methods of the senior thesis are:
 study of the native and foreign scientists’ works;
 the elements of comparative analysis;
 historical method;
 methods of analysis and of synthesis;
 method of stylistic interpretation
The novelty of the senior thesis consists in the facts that the degree of metaphors impact on the whole structure of the scientific text and the peculiarities and reasons of metaphor use in scientific texts in pragmatical aspect are defined.
Theoretical significance of the senior thesis is conditioned by the fact that the results of study can find its realization in the concrete questions elaborations which are connected with the peculiarities of syntactical, lexical and compositional features of scientific texts, and during the elaboration of several aspects of metaphor use in scientific discourse and also be a material for further investigation.
Practical significance of the senior thesis is in the fact that materials of the present work can find its use during the text-books compiling, in the theoretical courses on Stylistics of the English language, in the special courses on problems of translation and also in the students’ scientific research works.
Theoretical and methodological basis is the scientific investigations and well-known works of native and foreign scholars (I.V. Arnold, I.R. Galperin, Y.M. Skrebnev, T.A. Znamenskaya, N.M. Razinkina, O.K. Kudasova etc.), theoretical statements of the theory of the text and the theory of linguistics, the different scientific magazines, journals and dictionaries as well.
Approbation of the senior thesis The main issues of the current work were elucidated in the scientific thesis: “The Role of metaphors in scientific discourse”, which was presented during the international scientific conference “Lomonosov-2009” at the Moscow National University named after M.V. Lomonosov in Astana and published in the collection of scientific materials of the conference (‘The thesis of the reports’, p.II, p.134 Astana 2009).
Structure of the senior thesis consists of Introduction, 2 Parts, Conclusion, Bibliography and Appendix.
In Introduction the aim and objectives of the investigation, the object and subject of the paper work are defined; a list of methods used during the investigation is presented, and the actuality, practical and theoretical significance of the present work is highlighted.
Part I is dedicated to the identification of the role of metaphor in scientific discourse, determination of the types of metaphors used in scientific texts, defining the syntactical, lexical and compositional peculiarities of scientific texts, investigation of the metaphor clusters in scientific discourse.  
Part 2 is devoted to the identification of the role of metaphors in different types of genre, determination of the metaphor functions and its significance in scientific texts.
In Conclusion the main points of the research and the results achieved during the investigation are highlighted.
Bibliography contains 25 references, including the scientific journals, magazines and works of native and foreign scholars.
Appendix presents supplementary material of the present research