1. Theoretical Aspects of English, Kazakh and Russian Anthroponomy 6
1.1 The Notion of Anthroponomy: Definitions and Approaches 6
1.2 The History of English, Kazakh and Russian Surnames’ Origin 16
2. Comparative and Contrastive Analysis of English, Kazakh and Russian Surnames 31
2.1 English Surnames with Animalistic Components 31
2.2 Kazakh Surnames with Animalistic Components 38
2.3 Russian Surnames with Animalistic Components 44
2.4 Analysis of English, Kazakh and Russian surnames 50
The theme of our research work is devoted to surnames originating from animalistic nomination. A family name is a part of a person’s name that indicates what family he or she belongs to. The use of family names today is widerspread in cultures around the world although each culture has its own rules as to how these names are applied and used. Everyone has a surname that is usually regarded as an ordinary and universal phenomenon. Nevertheless, through daily practice and interaction with other people, surnames can reflect, shape and index one’s identities including gender, religion, ethnicity or culture, nationality and politics. Generally, surnames that people possess can reveal their social backgrounds. As it is well-known, Onomastics (term which is mostly used nowadays in comparison with Onomasiology) is the study of proper names of all kinds, including family names. Previous studies on naming practice have been mainly focused on Anthroponomy. Anthroponomy (or Anthroponomastics), a branch of Onomastics, is the study of anthroponyms, names of human beings.
Anthroponomy is related to Genealogy, Sociology and Anthropology. Anthroponomy falls under the umbrella of Onomastics that deals with the study of proper names including their forms and use.
The onomastic lexis has always been and still is of great interest to many linguists. The semantic essence of proper names and the peculiarities of Onomastic vocabulary semantic content have become a subject of thorough study in the works of O. Akhmanova, A. Gardiner, V. Gudkov, E. Gusserl, V. Krasnykh, E. Kurilovich, A. Losev, G. Mill, O. Esperson, and others. The main founders of Anthroponymy in abroad were Adolf Bakh (German), Albert Dauzat (France). In Russia the Anthroponomy was developed at the beginning of XX-c. by the linguists V.K. Chikagov, A.E. Sobolevskii, N.M. Tupikov, and later O.N. Trubacheva had studied the Russian surnames ethimology. In Kazakhstan, the Onomastics, basing on the fundamental works of international, particularly Russian, Turkic Onomastics, began to develop due to scholars’ research of Abdrahmanov A.A., Kaidarov A.T., Kerimbaev E.A, Koichubaev E., Konkashpaiyev K.K., Mahripov V.U., Popova V.N., Sultanyaev O.A., Zhanuzakov T.S.
The most prominent feature of Onomastics in America, once emphasized by H.L. Mencken in The American Language, is the tendency by ethnic groups to change the family name to adapt to American ears and tongues attuned to the English language. The stimulus is especially strong when surrounded by neighbors of English descent, weaker when they congregate in cities and districts with little contact with outsiders.
Surnames have originated in various ways: some of them derived from placenames (Lancaster); offices and professions (Smith); from personal peculiarities (Kosoy); some surnames derived from performance of certain actions (Pribylev); animal names (Fox); mineral or vegetable and fruit world (Meizov); and from accidental circumstances of every varied character (Naidenov, Nenashev, Nahodkin). The works of some scholars, devoted to origins of surnames, have promoted us to carry out a contrastive-semantic analysis on English, Kazakh and Russian surnames.
Thus, taking the above-said factors into consideration, we have been promoted to carry out a contrastive-semantic analysis on English, Kazakh and Russian surnames.
The topicality of the paper is proved by the undertaken contrastive-semantic analysis on the three such heterogeneous languages as English (the Romanic family of languages), Kazakh (the Turkic family) and Russian (the Slavonic family). Reviving such words promote to clarify the unequivocal details of ancient life. The theme of our research work is rather actual, scholars-anthromonomists are still confirming that the study of surnames` origin is capable of giving useful data for historians and for linguists, whereas some words, vanished from a modern language, can be conserved in a surname.
The object of the investigation is: 1) to reveal the analyzed surnames` origin; 2) to disclose their derivative meaning from animalistic nomination, the significant role of which has been forgotten in the course of time. The different linguistic stratifications are causes of shading the meaning and significance of surnames. On the assumption of the unequivocal aim, we point out the following objectives of our Anthroponomical research:
etymological analysis of surnames with animalistic component;
ascertainment of structural and word-forming features, which are inherent in surnames;
semantic clarification of surnames with animalistic component;
compiling the surnames chart derived from animalistic nomination of the English, Kazakh and Russian languages;
disclosing of the ancient surnames which frequently occur in the languages and screening the surnames with animalistic component from the anthroponimical dictionaries;
For the successful accomplishment of these tasks we have used the English, Kazakh and Russian Personal Names dictionaries, thesauruses and scientific investigations of many scholars. In thesauruses we have searched out (by complete excerpting method) for the surnames or animalistic nomination which is settled on surname foundation.
Consequently, the subject is a number of English, Kazakh and Russian surnames with animalistic component, which most frequently occur in surnames, the stereotypes and symbolizations of the most semantically productive animals` names, thier structure, semantic and word-forming models.
The Onomastic material has great cultural potential. The theoretical value of our scientific research is revealed in carrying out the contrastive-semantic investigation of the English, Russian and Kazakh surnames, which being rather heterogeneous in the origin, cultural and social background, though disclose to a certain degree identical cognitive base of giving a name by universal understanding of animalistic features. Anthroponomys often preserve lexical elements that have dropped out of the standard lexicon of a language.
For obtaining our object we use the following methodological basis of studies:
descriptive method – sequential characterization of dominant animals helps us to disclose their role and stereotype in world perception and language consciousness;
comparative-historical method – some surnames are forgotten and are not used in modern languages, so turning to the history of surnames` origin, we explicate the reason of the word forming modification, using the modes as textual analysis, form reconstruction, plausible etymological analysis.
comparative-contrastive method – studying the surnames with animalistic component, we compare their antecedent construction and confront the surnames in each language, it helps us to disclose the peculiarities and similarities of English, Russian and Kazakh world perception and language consciousness.
The main material of the study are thesauruses of the English, Russian and Kazakh personal names dictionaries as:
1. Zhanuzakov T.S. “Есімдер сыры”;
2. Zhusupova B.J. “Казахские имена” the third edition;.
3. Petrovskii N.A. “Словарь русских личных имен”;
4. N.M.Tupikov “Словарь древнерусских личных имен”
5. Jonathan J.Kalmakoff with Andrew J.Conovalov “Origin and Meaning of
6. Molakan Surnames”;
7. Ribakin A.N. “Словарь английских личных имен”;
8. Lidin.R.A. “Иностранные фамилии и личные имена”.
The practical value of our scientific research is exposed in the possibility of using the results of the investigation in practical courses on History of the English Language, English Lexicology, Theoretical English Grammar, etc.; as well as in some special extra-curriculum courses on contrastive-semantic linguistic investigations of the three languages.
Scientific novelty of our research is revealed in the undertaken anthroponomical analysis of the English, Kazakh and Russian surnames as well as in an attempt to show up these nationalities’ language consciousness and significance of most dominant animals in their world perception.
Composition. The diploma work consists of introduction, two chapters, the conclusion, the bibliography, three appendixes.
In our following research work, devoted to the problem of anthroponomy based on animalistic nomination, tables of the three languages surnames` bulks will be charted, analyzed and summarized.