We are going to investigate one of he important parts of speech in modern English. The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance. It means that each adjective used in tile text presupposes relation to some noun the property of whose referent it denotes, such as its material, colour, dimensions, position, state, and other characteristics both permanent and temporary. It follows from this that, unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value. Indeed, words like long, hospitable, fragrant cannot effect any self-dependent nominations; as units of informative sequences they exist only in collocations showing what is long, who is hospitable, what is fragrant.
Adjectives exist in most languages.The most widely recognized adjectives in English are words such as big, old, and tired that actually describe people, places, or things. These words can themselves be modified with adverbs, as in the phrase very big.The articles a, an, and the and possessive nouns, such as Mary's, are classified as adjectives by some grammarians; however, such classification may be specific to one particular language.
The semantically bound character of the adjective is emphasized in English by the use of the prop-substitute one in the absence of the notional head-noun of the phrase. E.g.:
I don't want a yellow balloon, let me have the green one over there.
On the other hand, if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position, this leads to its substantivization. E.g.: Outside it was a beautiful day, and the sun tinged the snow with red. Cf.: The sun tinged the snow with the red colour.
We have chosen this theme because we like adjectives from our early school age. It was interesting for us to investigate adjectives and to find something new that we didn’t know before. First of all we found out the basical definitions of adjectives to describe it as part of speech. We used many theoretical books to do our course work, such as: « Modern English language» (Theoretical course grammar) V.N. Zhigadlo, I.P. Ivanova, L.L. Iofik. Moscow, 1956 y., Baker, Mark. 2005. Lexical Categories - Verbs, nouns and adjectives. Cambridge University Press, etc. Then we looked through the “Warren, Beatrice. (1984). Classifying adjectives. Gothenburg studies in English” to know their theories and thoughts about adjectives as a part of speech. Here what we found about it:
In grammar, an adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. Adjectives exist in most languages. The most widely recognized adjectives in English are words such as big, old, and tired that actually describe people, places, or things. These words can themselves be modified with adverbs, as in the phrase very big.The articles a, an, and the and possessive nouns, such as Mary's, are classified as adjectives by some grammarians; however, such classification may be specific to one particular language. Other grammarians call such noun modifiers determiners. Similarly, possessive adjectives, such as his or her, are sometimes called determinative possessive pronouns, and demonstrative adjectives, such as this or that, are called determinative demonstratives.In some languages, participles are used as adjectives. Examples of participles used as adjectives are lingering in the phrase lingering headache and broken in the phrase broken toys. Nouns that modify other nouns are sometimes called modifying nouns, nouns used adjectivally, or just part of a compound noun (like the word ice in ice cream).
The topicality of work
Research actuality is conditioned attention of linguistics to semantics of word and compatibility of lexical units, and also aspiring to research of words in their relationships with other words. Compatibility of word is related to his lexical –grammar features. Lexical compatibility allows to define the semantic fields and lexical values of the combined words.
Considerable interest is presented by realization of certain semantic groups in the English and Russian languages, and also their comparison.
It is necessary to mark that at comparison of lexical –semantical groups many theoretical aspects of translation, which are based on the features of languages and cultures, are affected.
The object of study it is been as adjectives in text of literary works in English language.
The research subject are adjectives.
A purpose of work is research adjectives in English fiction.
Objectives of work:
- to open features of use of adjectives in English language
- analysis of transfer of adjectives on an example of a fiction
The material of the work is 120 examples, selected by a continuous selection from works of the English, American and Russian writers.
Methodological basis of research are scientific labours after semantics, stylistic, theory of translation and grammarian of the English and Russian languages, such scientists, as O. P. Akhmanova, L.S. Barkhudarov, V.V. Vines, I. A. Golub, V. I Commissars, V.I. Krupnov, A.V. of Kurilovich, V. H. Melikyan, P. German, A.V. Paducheva, I.M. of Shanskiy, I.F. Shvedova.
The scientific novelty of work is determined the necessity of more deep research of value of adjectives, that especially topically at translating of English texts into Russian language, as in Russian these adjectives will be realized the primary amount of semantic tints.
Theoretical meaningfulness of research consists in generalization and systematization of the theoretical going near the study of adjectives and lexical compatibility of adjectives in the English and Russian languages, and also in possibility of conclusion of conclusions on the basis of comparison of findings of research.
Practical meaningfulness of work consists in that its results can be recommended to application in the institute of higher as in lecture courses on the theory of language, linguistics, lexicology, communication, bases of translation, so on practical employments on English and Russian languages.