Contents

 

Introduction                                                                                                  3

 

1. “The Silk way”: history and the Present                                               8

 

1.1  Historical background of the “Silk way”                                             8

 

1.2  Contemporary reconstruction projects of the “Silk way”                 15

 

2. Project “Western Europe – Western China” in

3. Kazakhstan–China relations                                                                  24

 

3.1  “Western Europe – Western China” as an international

transport corridor                                                                                  24

 

3.2  Prospects of the “Western Europe – Western China”

project and its significance for Kazakhstan and China                      30

 

Conclusion                                                                                                     39

 

References                                                                                                     47

 

Appendix

Introduction
Urgency of the topic
Relevance of research due to the fact that for most of the XX century, international economic and political relations in the transport sector evolved in the direction of polarization of producing and consuming countries. Before the developed world raised the question of formulating a long-term, possibly co-ordinated strategy to ensure sustainable supply of resources, while the supplier countries have sought to extract maximum political and economic benefits from the possession of raw materials and goods. Now in a globalized world the value of the transport network as possible increases. Transportation is the material basis of industrial relations between the individual territories, acts as a factor, which organizes the world economic space, and provides further geographical division of labor. Subject development of transport communications in Central Asia as a core segment of transcontinental transport bridges Eurasia remains valid at all times after gaining the region's geopolitical status. At the same time, despite the close attention of international organizations, regional associations, national leaders, policy makers and expert community to this issue, the problem of forming a region full of international transport corridors remains open. The formation of this strategic industry associated with the complicating influence of many factors. The problem of transport and communications complex in the region has been the subject of geopolitical conflicts that arose between the leading world powers.
Currently, there are two opposite approaches, one of which aims to develop communication, bypassing Russia and Iran, the second - on the preservation and expansion of traffic from the region in a northerly direction - across Russia, as well as in the Southern Hemisphere - through Iran. The result: competition among world powers for influence in Central Asia not only intensified the formation of the industry, but for many years hampered the effectiveness of the implementation of transnational communication projects. Against the backdrop of geopolitical competition between the West and Russia considerable influence on the region began to implement and China. The country is an independent player in the development of transport and communication component of a Eurasian policy, as well as a transit area, connecting the regions of Central Asia and Asia Pacific. From the Central Asian republics have some concerns about the growing influence of the Chinese economy, but on the other hand, they are forced to expand transport cooperation in an easterly direction.
Furthermore, among the countries of Central Asia have not developed a common regional approach to the development of international transport routes. Despite the cooperation in international organizations (SPECA UNESCAP, EurAsEC, SCO, ECO) to promote the development of the industry, the actual implementation of transportation and communication projects implemented within the framework of the national transport network. So far, the Central Asian states are building railways and roads primarily within countries - in order to combine into a whole internal transport system and reduce dependence on transportation routes that cross the border to neighboring republics in the region.
Thus, in the presence of many international projects in the form of traditional land-based communications, transport infrastructure development takes place mainly at the national level, rarely - in the regional context and global projects continue to exist in the form of long-term plans. Even if we recognize that around the borders of Central Asia with the external environment has implemented parts of transcontinental transport links, often their implementation was dictated by the geopolitical interests of one of the world powers, rather than the execution of regional plans to create a transportation bridge between Europe and Asia. The Great Silk Road that once formed a powerful transportation artery connecting dozens of cities in different countries now have a chance at rebirth. This ancient land transport corridor, connecting more than one century of Asia to the Mediterranean, as well as with the states of Western and Eastern Europe, has ceased to exist with the active development of seafaring in the Middle Ages. Most actively the issues of intensifying land transport links between Asia and Europe were discussed since the early 2000's. More recently, activation of the Euro-Asian transport links, including the revival of the Silk Road, linked to the initiatives of the United Nations, the World Organization of Motor Vehicle, other international organizations, industry associations, carriers of Asian and European countries, the formal structures of different levels, representing different economic interests of different states, etc. Revival of the Silk Road through the creation of an integrated Eurasian transcontinental bridge will bring Kazakhstan into the international arena as a transit state, effectively implementing its transit potential. Almost from the first years of independence, the leadership of the Republic of Kazakhstan was tasked with finding the most effective ways to implement the transport transit potential of the republic. In addition to significant practical work, was developed and adopted a number of important public documents of national and international format, which directly or indirectly affected by the development of transport and communications. Among them: the long-term development of Kazakhstan for the period up to 2030, the Concept of the State Transport Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period up to 2008, the Strategy of development of international transport corridors of Kazakhstan, a number of sectoral programs, transportation development of Kazakhstan and so on. In addition, attention to developing ways to transport and paid in the state program "Road to Europe" (2009-2011). According to the Transport Strategy of Kazakhstan prerequisite for the development and effective use of transit potential of Kazakhstan is the emergence of new cargo flows between China and Europe, facilitated by:
 implemented integrated transport strategy in China ("The Great Leap Forward") and the accelerated development of the western provinces of China «Go West» («Going to the West"). These include the implementation of major transport infrastructure projects, including construction of new railway lines to creating a Free Trade Area of the Khorgos on the Kazakh-Chinese border (in particular Tszinhe - Khorgos with the traffic volume in the first years of operation more than 6 million tons per year) and five strategic road "East-West (including Lianyungang - Khorgos, Shanghai - Hefei - Xian - Khorgos), that allows to predict a promising increase in transit cargo traffic from China through Kazakhstan;
 prospects for the development of transport corridor «NEW-corridor» in the direction of U.S. - China, originating from the port of Boston (in the north-eastern USA) on the sea route to the Norwegian port of Narvik and passing through the territories of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia on the route of the Northern Corridor Trans-Asian Railway (Petropavlovsk - Dostyk), which is an alternative to the southern sea passage through the Suez Canal;
 implementation of the new automotive initiative «NELTI» [ 3]
It should be noted that one of the latest initiatives is the construction of an international transport corridor "Western Europe - Western China", much of which will run through Kazakhstan. Kazakh leg of the transport corridor has already begun, and in the autumn of last year the Head of State NA Nazarbayev announced this project “nationwide construction project”. [50] All this confirms the relevance of the study of the Kazakh-Chinese relations in the transport sector in the context of the revival of the Silk Road.
Degree of the topics scrutiny
Subject of revival of the Silk Road project began to take turns only in 2009. Special studies on the Kazakh - Chinese relations were conducted very little. However, this topic is becoming increasingly important as the construction of roads, which will be discussed in the work, and the convergence of interests of the Republic of Kazakhstan and China.
This work includes many sources about the history of the “Silk way” as “Taini Shelkovogo puti” Akhmetshin N.H..[4] It describes the Silk Road and its modern guise, of the ancient studies of China and its present development. The book was written by the candidate of historical sciences NH Akhmetshin, twice traveled along the past route of the Silk Road.
A lot of information was taken from the five-volume work of the Kazakhstan Institute of Strategic Studies academic scientist Murat Laumulin “Centralnaya Asia v zarubezhnoi politologii i mirovoi geopolitike” [25]. This work provides comprehensive information not only about facts and events of international relations, but also their reflection in the works of foreign scholars and experts. Review and analysis of contemporary international relations are interspersed with deep excursions into history, political science, historiography, Oriental and geopolitics. Murat Laumullin well known not only as an academic scholar, but as a writer and broadcaster. As a former diplomat and a direct participant in many events of international life, the author tells of facts, whose political importance, he had the opportunity to assess in the immediate vicinity as a witness or participant. This study was planned originally as a whole and twofold study on the geopolitical processes in and around Central Asia. But as work on the book and the accompanying expansion of perspective had to structure the study in five volumes. Certain books were published bibliography on Central Asia, as well as «The Geopolitics of XXI Century in Central Asia» - a kind of summary to the five-volume work. The fifth volume ("Central Asia in the XXI century") covers the issue of geopolitical situation in Central Asia, State and national, economic and political development of each of the states in the region, the influence of Islam, the situation in the Caspian region, security. The effect on the region the strategy and policies of great powers and regional players: Russia, U.S., EU, China, Japan, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. A study is also the issue of security of Central Asia from the standpoint of international organizations and the military-political groupings - the CSTO, NATO and the SCO.
In the thesis used a lot of material from the official site of the Kazakhstan Institute of Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Such as “Kitaiskoe prisutstvie v Kazakhstane: mifi I realnost” which properly step by step describes, refuses or accepts everything that is connected to the Kazakhstan – China relations and “Novii transportnii koridor v soobshenii Asia – Evropa”  by Kizatov, that describes last modifications that took place in the “Western Europe – Western China” transport corridors projects. Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (KazISS) was established on June 16, 1993 by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Since the moment of its foundation the main mission of the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan as the national scientific research institution is providing the activity of the President of Kazakhstan and governing bodies of the country with scientific and analytical background. The KazISS has become a high professional scientific-analytical center. At present, five doctors of sciences, fourteen candidates of sciences, specialists in political sciences, historians, economists and sociologists work in this Institute. During the period of the KazISS activity, the Institute’s experts have published more than 100 books on international relations, problems of global and regional security. The Institute is publishing four journals: “Kogam jane Dayir” (in Kazakh), “Kazakhstan - Spectrum”, “Analytic” (in Russian), “Central Asia’s Affairs”.The KazISS annually conducts a great number of the international scientific conferences, seminars and round tables. Foreign experts are interested in the annual conferences of the KazISS, conducted from 2003 and devoted to problems of security and cooperation in Central Asia. Not only experts from Kazakhstan, the Central Asian countries, but also scientists from Russia, China, Germany, France, India, Turkey, Pakistan, Japan and other countries attend the KazISS scientific forums.
Source of the research base
Because of the fact that the theme of the “Silk way” project is rather new the main base and most part of the materials was taken from governmental Internet sources. We used ө message from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010, Minister of Foreign Affairs, vystuleniya President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao, the data from the Ministry of Transport website lfitsialnogo ikommunikatsy RK, recent news reports of such resources as Kazinform, RIA Novosti, the official website channel swag, as well as foreign resources, such as Zhenmin's Daily - People's Newspaper and Russian periodicals [35].
The Object of Research
The object of the research is Relations between Kazakhstan Republic and Peoples Republic of China in the context of  railway and roads construction, reconstruction of already existing roads and mutual benefit of the countries.
The Subject of Research
The subject of the research is more close interaction of the countries in future in economic and political aspects.
Goal of the work
Explore future potential of  relations of the countries. Identify the main points of economic and political profit to the countries.
Problems
1. Explore the historical background of the Great Silk Way;
2. Describe the existing road projects;
3. Identify the “Western Europe – Western China” project.
4. Determine  “Western Europe – Western China” project specifics.
Chronological framework
Step 1: Ancient history
Step2: Middle Ages
Step 3: from Middle ages to Modern ages
Step 4: From Modern ages to Current days
Structure of the work
This work consists of an introduction, two chapters, conclusion, references and appendix. The first chapter “The Silk way”: history and the Present. It consists of two paragraphs, those are Historical background of the “Silk way” and Contemporary reconstruction projects of the “Silk way”. The second chapter Project “Western Europe – Western China” in Kazakhstan – China relations, also consists of two paragraphs, “Western Europe – Western China” as an international transport corridor, Prospects of the “Western Europe – Western China” project and its significance for Kazakhstan and China.